Autonomous Driving

  • Varying degrees of machine augmentation or automation of human driving capacity
  • Five levels of autonomous driving by US NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration)
  • (Level 0): No assistance or automation
  • Function-specific Automation (Level 1): i.e. ABS, ESC
  • Combined Function Automation (Level 2): i.e. Adaptive Cruise Control with Lane Centering
  • Limited Self-Driving Automation (Level 3): i.e. Tesla Autopilot or early Google Car test vehicles
  • Full Self-Driving Automation (Level 4): i.e. Google Car


  • Google Car
  • Tesla Autopilot
  • Traditional Automaker Prototypes (Mercedes, Audi, Etc)