Business Models-Platforms-Leadership

Multi-Sided Platforms (and Platform Economies)

  • Establishment of platforms to enable creation of value by people other than those who developed the platform
  • Combination of shared central resources and develop-specific innovations
  • Core of modern business models behind iOS, Android ecosystems, many others
  • Allows innovation at both the core and edges of an enterprise
  • Allows solving of very complex problems at enterprise scale and often leaves market, distribution, integration or feature-specific innovations to smaller developers


  • iOS App Store
  • Google Play Store
  • Amazon
  • Etsy


Leadership: Control to Empowerment

  • Control-based leadership inherited from military models and the industrial age has limitations
  • In order to respond in an agile way, teams and employees must have room to improvise
  • Modern leadership focuses on empowering teams to be creative and fast
  • Creation of ‘doctrine’—guidelines for acceptable improvisation, is necessary for success of employees—in addition to a bare minimum of processes and rules


  • Whole Foods customer service
  • Google
  • Agile development



Distributed Workforce

  • Multiple locations for workforce
  • May be distributed between multiple companies
  • Necessitates telepresence and advanced travel functions to be affordable and reliable
  • Requires effective decision-making at edges of the organization
  • Foundation of large multinational companies, but also very small firms with global presence
  • In long term, may affect or effect population migration trends


  • Google
  • Redhat Linux


As a Service

  • Pricing model of charging a fee (usually subscription-based) for the value provided to a customer, rather than delivery of a tangible good
  • Common in software world with web-based tools hosted in the cloud
  • Increasing application to the physical world (mobility as a service via Uber and Didi, for example)
  • Requires constant innovation by company, but stabilizes cashflow and upkeep costs
  • Lowers cost of entry to expensive or complex systems


  • Salesforce
  • Spotify
  • Netflix
  • Google Apps for Work
  • FreshBooks
  • Office 365